Why Reading Educational Research can be a Challenge?

Written with co-author Dr Christine Bottrell. Pre-service teacher education students, in most courses, are required to undertake some study of education research methods, to provide them with skills to read and make use of education research. However, the field of education research is a complex and difficult area. Perhaps focusing upon the most frequently used research methods could be a useful starting point. So, what type of research methods are most favoured in education? This article describes the authors’ attempts to answer this question, and the unexpected outcomes of the quest.


Understanding research and being able to critically read research reports in education would seem to be an important skill for teachers to acquire,Guest Posting and many initial teacher education programs, in countries such as Australia, require students to study a research method subject. In the case of pre-service teachers, there are important questions for a lecturer to consider. What should be the content and focus of an introductory course in research methods for pre-service education students? What are the priorities? Where to start? The starting point is important because, for many of these pre-service teachers, this may be the only study they will ever undertake in the area of education research. A pre-service teacher who is provided with a sound foundation in research methods is more likely to be a productive user of education research as an education practitioner.

In the limited time available for an introductory course in research methods, decisions have to be made regarding what to teach and what to leave out; what topics are considered to be more important than others and why. The field of education research is complex and, for students, the area can be overwhelming. In the experience of the authors, who have taught research methods at both under-graduate and post-graduate level over many years, students consistently describe their confusion and frustration at the sheer scope of the area and, in some cases, this acts as a disincentive.

Perhaps a useful starting point would be to focus upon the type of research that is most prevalent in education, on the assumption that students would be more likely to come across examples in the journals they read. If students are cognizant with the methods used in the research that they most frequently encounter then surely confidence would be increased. As journals are readily accessible for students, an investigation of relevant education journals would be a useful source in order to determine if certain types of research are published more frequently than others.

An investigation of this nature may reveal a profile of education research that could have implications for education researchers as well as assisting teachers and pre-service teachers. This article describes the authors’ endeavor to profile selected education research journals and the unexpected surprises encountered along the way; in particular, difficulties in the development of a suitable ‘mapping tool’. There may be implications for education researchers as well as teachers of research.

The Nature of Educational Research

Educational research is undertaken by a range of stakeholders including government departments and non-government organisations, but the majority of educational research, as with most disciplines, is undertaken by academics in universities. Educational research covers a broad range of topics such as curriculum and pedagogy, education systems (encompassing early childhood, primary, secondary education) and various specialist studies, including areas such as assessment, leadership, technology and gender.

Research needs of stakeholders vary. Education departments use research to inform teaching and curriculum practice, devise professional learning activities, target resources and improve system requirements. Non-government organisations may use research to develop teaching resources or provide information to improve services to a range of clients. Research that underpins the teaching and learning process is of particular importance to inform teacher practice. Universities usually require students to engage with the education research literature, whereby students undertake a unit in research methods or read educational research. With the growth of pre-service teacher education courses offered at the Master degree level in countries such as Australia, the requirement for research skills has escalated.

Research in education encompasses many different naturalistic, interpretative, hypothesis generating models as well as hypothesis testing models. A rich resource of text books is available for those studying the theory and practice of educational research: Burke & Christensen (2012), Punch (2009), O’Toole & Beckett (2013), Wiersma and Jurs (2009) and Yin (2012), to name a few. Due to the nature of research in an educational setting the majority of research utilises a hypothesis generation approach with a predominance of verbal qualitative data gathering.

The reporting of educational research is usually presented in a range of publications such as academic journals, including online journals, professional magazines and books. Academic journals are a pathway that allows for the results of research to be released quickly into the public space. The content of academic journals also contains opinion papers, book reviews and editorial pieces; however, in some journals, the distinction between position/opinion papers and reports of research are left to the reader to discover, which can be a problem for students and inexperienced researchers. Nevertheless, articles in journals are a readily accessible starting place for students of research methods.

Several studies have attempted to map the type of research methodology used in various educational research; for example: Murray, Nuttall & Mitchell (2008), Nuttall, Murray, Seddon & Mitchell (2006), and Tuinamuana (2012). However, Burns (2000) contends that in general, most educational research tends to be classified as “case study research”, which has become an “over-arching” term to describe educational research that does not fit with experimental, historical or descriptive research methods.

Barriers exist regarding classification of different types of research methodology; in particular, where there is not a shared understanding of categories, such as method, data source, data gathering, and data analysis. The wide-spread use of general terms, such as “qualitative research” and “quantitative research”, and the term “mixed method research”, that largely refers to the use of both verbal data and numerical data in a research study, can cause confusion. The education research field is broad and interrelated so that students, novice researchers, and teachers new to reading research are often overwhelmed and unsure where to start.

Where should the novice begin?

The question of where to start the journey into the ‘research methodology forest’ would be answered in numerous ways depending upon the preferences or individual expertise of a lecturer. Pre-service teachers, and those commencing research for the first time, often seek advice regarding the ‘best’ method, or the ‘most useful’ approach, but it is not that simple. Students themselves bring to the situation their own experience and knowledge of research, both formal and informal. As teachers of research methods to pre-service teachers and early career researchers, over many years, questions to the authors, such as “where do I start?”, “it is difficult to know who to believe when one lecturer talks about the same term in a completely different way” and “what research method is most useful for teachers?”, were often followed by complaints about the daunting size of the task and difficulty in reading research reports in education journals.

For the novice some knowledge of research methods would be essential for reading and understanding research reports in order to make a judgement of the usefulness of the findings to their situation. The absence of information about the research process deters understanding no matter what level of research expertise the reader brings to the task. Indeed, education doctoral students attending a recent conference session, given by one of the authors, expressed concern with inadequate information provided in research journal articles about the methods used, data gathering techniques and subsequent data analysis. Comments such as “it is often not clear what is being reported when components, such as how the data were collected, are missing” and “I expect to read details on the data source or data gathering but sometimes this information is just not there”, as well as comments about the difficulties encountered by students in “identifying the type of research methodology used in educational research” (Knipe& Bottrell, 2013). It seems that pre-service teachers are not alone in their concerns about reading and understanding education research.

If particular types of research methodology are more frequently used by educational researchers, such as case study as claimed by Burns (2000), then there could be justification in placing an initial emphasis on case study methodology as a starting point in teaching research methods. As it is more likely that students and early career researchers would encounter this method in educational research journals, they would have a useful starting point for reading research and designing a research study. From the confidence gained through knowledge of one method of research, students could be encouraged to use that knowledge as a springboard into other research methodology.

Developing a “Mapping Tool”

Methods of classifying research into various categories and the development of instruments used have been reported in many disciplines, from early classifications by Cooper (1984) in social science to more recent classifications in areas such as Sports Science (Williams & Kendall, 2007) and Marketing (Ensign 2006). In categorizing educational research methods, an early attempt by Barr etal (1931) identified eight areas and, more recently, Isaac & Michael (1995) designated nine categories. Books on research are mostly organised by chapters that address the various aspects of research and tend not to be arranged by methodological classifications.

A review of categories used in books on research, including text books on education research, showed that some text books are structured according to particular designated research methodologies, such as ethnography, case study, phenomenology, descriptive and experimental, including extensive description and detailed features on each research method. In other text books, research methodologies, approaches to data gathering and analysis are addressed as separate entities. Concepts such as ‘research paradigms’ are often dealt with as a category separate from research methods.

Some text books on research methods have titles relating to “qualitative” research that focused upon the characteristics of naturalistic enquiry prevalent in education research, together with an emphasis on gathering verbal data from subject and/or researcher. By comparison, very few texts were found with the title “quantitative research”, but some authors such as Burns (2000) designate a section in their book titled “quantitative research”. ‘Qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ are terms used to describe a group of research methods, types of data gathered, and data analysis techniques. For the purpose of this project and for reasons of clarity, the terms ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ were not used as categories in the development of a ‘mapping tool’.

In classifying educational research into mutually exclusive categories, the focus was upon research methodologies, separate from data gathered, sources of data, and data analysis techniques. Four categories were designated as follows:

Source of Data (e.g. teachers/students/school administrators/parents/non-school personnel etc)

Data Gathering Technique (e.g. interview/observation/survey/existing data etc)

Data Analysis Techniques (e.g. Categories/Themes/Open and axial coding/statistical analysis etc).

Research Methods (e.g. Case Study/Action research/Field study/ Quasi-experimental, Developmental, Historical etc).

A category for “sampling methods” was included together with a category for the reporting of reliability/dependability and validity/authenticity of the data gathering tools. The ‘mapping tool’ was called the Journal Article Research Analysis (JARA) Schedule and details of the complete categories, definitions for items, and results of the use of the JARA Schedule in a research project, will be presented elsewhere.

Application of the JARA Schedule

For early ‘test runs’ of the JARA Schedule, journals selected for review varied from one complete issue of a journal to analysing all issues for one year. Journals, national and international, were drawn from four major areas in education: namely, Educational and Developmental Psychology, Education Research, Teacher Education and Education Administration.

Generally, research journals contain reports of research together with position statements or opinion and book reviews. However, in selecting education research journals to use for the ‘test run’, it became apparent that there was a far greater proportion of position/opinion papers than expected – in some cases up to half of all articles were found to be opinion/position papers. Indeed, some of the opinion papers were presented as ‘research’ but closer scrutiny revealed that the paper was merely an informal report with no evidence of systematic investigation. The ratio of research to non-research articles in a significant number of journals purporting to be research journals was an unexpected discovery.

The absence of information regarding methodology, data gathering, and/or data analysis was another surprise. One would expect that a research article in a journal designated as having a research focus would include details of the research process, as well as reference to sampling methods, reliability and validity. In some instances, an author may have claimed to have used a particular method (for example, case study) but the description of the procedures followed did not meet the criteria for case study research, according to widely accepted definitions contained in text books on research methods.

For further ‘test runs’ of the JARA Schedule, the authors sought the assistance of two very experienced researchers both of whom had taught research methods for many years at the Master and Doctoral level. The team of four, independently, applied the JARA Schedule to a selection of eight articles. Discussion prior to using the JARA Schedule clarified definitions of the categories to the satisfaction of everyone in the team. After the scoring was complete discrepancies in scoring were discussed. It became clear that a major problem was with research reports that failed to include information about how data was gathered and analysed, or where the information provided, regarding procedures followed, was inadequate. In some cases, reports did not include a description of methodology, leaving the team to provide their own interpretation. The JARA Schedule team considered such interpretation to be unsatisfactory so a scoring descriptor of “not included /not clear” was added to the coding.

The category of ‘research methods’ stimulated much discussion and all members of the team were surprised that, despite our experience in the area of education research, we were not as clear in our understanding of definitions as we would like to have been. The discussion that followed as the team clarified and refined definitions of research methods, with extensive consultation of text books on research methods, served to strengthen their understanding and expertise in the research area. In this sense, the JARA Schedule, became a professional learning tool for the research team. Later “test runs” with nine other academics revealed similar lack of certainty in definitions. This seems to suggest that definitions and understanding of research methods may have been taken for granted, and the authors connected this with the confusion expressed by the first-time research methods students.

The team reviewed the JARA Schedule categories and the definitions with reference to explanations provided in research methods texts, expanding the definitions and providing supporting explanations where necessary. The revised JARA Schedule was trialed with a group of 44 students at the post-graduate level undertaking an introductory research methods unit as part of a Master of Teaching degree. Results showed a high level of agreement for all categories except the category of ‘research methods’. However, the feedback from pre-service teachers indicated a high degree of satisfaction with using the JARA Schedule because the process provided a comprehensive overview of the field that served to expand their understanding of research methods in general. The following comments illustrate reactions from pre-service teachers;

“we were given an understanding of a wide range of methods and procedures, and that has given us confidence”

“this has been one of the most valuable aspects of the course, offering a clearly organised method of making sense of the research maze, over a short face-to- face period. I know I will be much more competent in deciding what is useful research for my daily practice”

“I get it now, I am much more able to see through the big words and evaluate the important things that go to make good quality research.”

“I am still confused but I see how important it is for me to look carefully at what people say they are doing, is it useable research and what is actually there”

The JARA Schedule emerged from the problems faced by two university lecturers as they attempted to negotiate their way around the plethora of ‘research’ on offer in education, in order to make research interesting and comprehensible to pre-service teachers. The initial task was to identify research methods most frequently published in journals. However, the most useful and unexpected outcome from the process of developing the JARA Schedule has been the creation of a viable learning tool for teaching research methods. The JARA Schedule could be used as a teaching tool for students undertaking research methods classes, as well as a resource for teachers to enable professional learning options that provide experienced teachers with the skills to critically evaluate research studies relevant to their role as a teacher and to classroom practice.


Barr, A. S. ; Almack, John C. ; Ayer, Fred C. ; Dashiell, J. F. ; Gates, Arthur I. ; Good, Carter V. ; Johnson, Palmer O. ; Kelley, Truman L. ; Mccall, William A. ; Ruch, G. M. ; Symonds, Percival M. ; Toops, Herbert A. ; Trabue, M. R. ; Whitney, F. L. ; Woody, Clifford ; Kilpatrick, William H. ; Henmon, V. A. C. ; Freeman, Frank N. (1931). Symposium on the Classification of Education research. Journal of Education Research, 23(5), 353-382.

Burns, R. (2000). Introduction to Research Methods. 4th edn. Longman Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Cooper, H. (1984). The Integrative Research Review. A Systematic Approach. Applied Social Science Research methods Series Volume 2. Sage Publications.

Ensign, P (2006). Ensign International Channels of Distribution: A Classification System for Analyzing Research Studies. The Multinational Business Review, 14 (3), 95-120 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Huberman, A. & Miles, M (2002). The qualitative researcher’s companion. Thousand Oaks, California. Journal of Educational Research, 23(5), 353-382.

Isaac, S. & Michael, W. (1995). Handbook in research and evaluation: a collection of principles, methods, and strategies useful in the planning, design, and evaluation of studies in education and the behavioral sciences. 3rd edn San Diego, Calif.: EDITS Publishers.

Knipe, S. & Bottrell, C, (2013) Barriers to Reading and Interpreting Research. 2013 European Conference for Educational Research. Turkey.

Murray, S. Nuttall, J. & Mitchell, J. (2008). Research into initial teacher education in Australia: A survey of literature 1995-2004. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 (1), 225-239.

Nuttall, J. Murray, S. Seddon, T. & Mitchell, J. (2006). Changing Research Contexts in Teacher Education in Australia: Charting new directions. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. 34 (3), 321-332.

O’Toole, J & Beckett, D (2010). Educational research: Creative Thinking & Doing. 2nd edn South Melbourne, Victoria, Oxford University Press.

Punch, K (2009). Introduction to Social Research, Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California, Sage Publications.

Tuinamuana, K. (2012). What do ATEA people research and why? Conference Presentation Australian Teacher Education Conference, Melbourne, 2012.

Wiersma W. & Jurs S. (2009). Research methods in education: an introduction 9th edn. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Williams, J & Kendall, L. (2007). A profile of sports science research (1983-2003) Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 10, 193-200.

Yin, R. (2012). Applications of case study research. 3rd edn Thousand Oaks, Califorina, Sage Publications.

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Cooperative research studies: Its nature and propagation

Our research institute nestles at the feet of the mighty Himalayas, on the shores of the sacred River Ganges where the Saptarshis (7 Rishis) of the Vedic Age had performed intense penance for the welfare of world creatures.

The headquarters of Brahmavarchas Research Institute is Haridwar (Uttaranchal,Guest Posting INDIA). Over here its mode of action is classified in 4 parts:

1) SCRIPTURAL RESEARCH: A comparative study of all spiritual tenets declared so far will be analyzed. Within this all those aspects which will help augment world humanity’s sacred sentiments will be gathered separately. For this the literature content of our library is being replenished and added on a large scale. Further for teaching and education purposes other sources of literature and books are being tapped.

2) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH BASED EXPERIMENTATION: Within this section highly advanced apparatus and scientific technology has been set up. Experiments are conducted so as to find out which spiritual endeavor positively transforms ones outer and inner life. Yajnopathy is being scientifically tested in such a manner so as to present to the world, its most optimum and a wholesome form. As a result man’s bodily strength, psychic balance and the soul’s greatness will reach great pinnacles of success.

3) COOPERATIVE ENDEAVOR BY WORLD SCIENTISTS AND THINKERS: In this section we will request great thinkers, philosophers and scientists of the world to take part in this research endeavor and thus help us come up with outstanding results. At the time of writing these lines (before 1991 A.D.) around 100 have already agreed to join our mission. Our target is to encourage at least 1000 such specialists to come to Haridwar for more or a short time span and contribute in this great research study. Further they could even guide us from their place of residence and gather required research material for us. Thus this section helps coordinate the research studies of all such people.

4) PROPAGATION: In this section those who grace our research centre with their presence will be given due information about the goal and nature of our research studies. Those who are willing to contribute in their own way will be presented with literature in this subject. We will humbly guide them as to who will help by taking part in which aspect of our research endeavor.

For more scientific e-books visit: http://www.shriramsharma.com/ (GOOGLE PR 4) and http://www.awgp.org/ (Google 5)

These 4 sections and departments work in tandem with one another. Initially there were 20 resident research members. This number has increased by leaps and bounds over the years. In general all members are very capable and intelligent in their areas of research. Their lodging and boarding requirements are fulfilled by the Brahmavarchas Research Institute Those who are financially well off tend to take care of all their expenses. The rest are taken care of by the institute.

Keeping contemporary requirements in mind our research activities revolve around them. Of course transformational changes are made as per the need of the hour. When one task is finished another one replaces it immediately. Sometimes a particular task is made more widespread if we realize that it is important to study it more deeply. Visitors are amazed to see this research team creating an atmosphere of joy on the one hand and yet minutely researching into various topics in a focused selfless manner. A special characteristic of this scientific experimentation involves encouraging the youth wing of world humanity to take up this utmost important endeavor of improving human destiny in the 21st century so as to make it radiant. We are trying to find out how far they will succeed in doing so. Our research efforts have their basis in Government Aid and those by the influential and wealthy class of society. Within this realm it is rare to find elsewhere a group of people who live traditionally like the saints and sages of yester years. This gigantic task is carried out with such zest and zeal that one fails to differentiate between a game and serious Yoga practices. In fact it becomes a topic of research by itself when one takes into account the individuals, means and research methods used at Brahmavarchas. A major conclusion that emanates from this is that even those who do not get cooperation from highly scholarly people or the wealthy class can yet achieve their goal of him self/her self attaining greatness and encouraging others to follow suit. The only condition to succeed thus rests in ones deep conviction and powerful resolve (Sankalpa Shakti).

Our research institute nestles at the feet of the mighty Himalayas, on the shores of the sacred River Ganges where the Saptarshis (7 Rishis) of the Vedic Age had performed intense penance for the welfare of world creatures. If you superficially compare it with grand buildings and structure of the world one can say ‘it is nothing great’. Despite this if one takes care to note the zest and zeal exuding from the members, walls, trees etc of the Brahmavarchas Research Institute one can conclude without doubt that it is not merely some inanimate organizational center but that every pore of its existence oozes with divine radiance/aura. This endeavor is being executed by great characters, supreme goals, sacred ideals and well directed programs. Hence we can safely conclude that this endeavor is extraordinary and that its results too will definitely be mind boggling.

So far we have discussed the institute’s activities. Whatever is taking place in this institute can be called the center of focus and yet we certainly cannot say that what is happening now or that what will take place in future will remain of this size only. In fact our activities are widespread and doubtlessly they will keep expanding enormously in the days to come. It goes without saying the task taken up is gigantic wherein the viewpoint of billions of people on Earth needs to be changed and guided to higher peaks of human/divine glory. It can be compared if at all to interstellar space research conducted with the help of high tech space crafts. Space centers that launch satellites etc stay put in one place on Earth (like for example NASA) and yet its area of functioning revolves around studying the state of interstellar space and planetary etc movements. Only those great scientists attached to space stations know exactly the functional aspects of space research. They know very well how difficult their task is and the extent to which highly advanced technology is made use of. As a result laymen like us are simply wonderstruck to note the super intelligence, mental focus and alertness manifested by these great space scientists. Similarly the research area of Brahmavarchas Research Institute too is very gigantic and widespread. Hence it is least surprising that its activities span across the globe and in every nation on Earth. Thus the Brahmavarchas Research Institute should not be looked upon as a center in one tiny corner of India simply because its area of action is global and all pervasive.

No doubt chiefly the research activities of the Brahmavarchas Research Institute are centered in India and yet like the fragrance of a full bloomed flower it reaches every nook and corner of the world. The Era of Consciousness has thrown a challenge to great thinkers of the world. Atheism has taken over the intellect of the thinking class of the world. Thus they think narrowly and act very selfishly. Within this class albeit in minor forms the Rishi tradition yet does exist. Even a miniscule form of its help and influence the royal path of divine glory for world humanity will be thrown wide open for all to march ahead.

The number of volunteers who are giving their precious time for our research studies is augmenting by leaps and bounds. We have requested them to come to Haridwar (Uttaranchal, India) as per their convenience and by staying here for a certain time span help us advance our scientific viewpoint and mode of research. We have requested them not to bring along with themselves their family and kids because everyone’s attention will be distracted. Our research institute does not have any arrangement for accompanying family members to reside. Thus only those who wish to focus all their attention on our project need come albeit alone and we request them to give us as much of their valuable time as possible. If they come simply for 2 or 3 days maybe they can give us some theoretical advice but it will be impossible to imbibe their practical knowledge in such a meager time span. Hence we request our revered research volunteers to come here only when they have enough time to one pointedly focus on our research projects. In this atmosphere of calmness and camaraderie a lot of give and take of high scientific principles can take place. Our research study is extremely useful for all world beings. On it basis a lot can be achieved both materially and spiritually.

Great thinkers, who because of a lot of prior commitments, cannot come to our institute are humbly requested to help our research study from their place of residence. The only condition is that they seriously focus on our research and contribute in a committed manner. They must look upon it as a sacred responsibility and like certain other routine chores spend a certain number of hours daily for our institute’s endeavor. The time volunteered for this great task should be well defined and adhered to implicitly and only then something tangible will come our way. On the other hand if the attitude is quite superficial and ‘frothy’ we will be fooling ourselves only and that nothing concrete by way of research will be attained. There are a few who for self aggrandizement call themselves ‘members’ of our research team without being committed to our cause or contributing anything significant. This in a nutshell is just vain mockery on their part and is like basking on wrested laurels. Hence we sincerely hope that only those who are accountable and committed to our cause join as members of our team. Only those who have a certain time span for committed research on a regular basis need join our sacred institute. Thus let us pray in all humility that only genuine responsible researchers will join our research team and those who cannot come to our Institute are requested to stay at their place of residence and give us their invaluable research inputs.

What kind of task will be given to which person based on his/her qualifications, credentials and the available circumstances? This question can be decided only when we all meet personally and discuss our research goals. And yet those who cannot come to Haridwar again and again can be given required assignments only after understanding the overall designing of our research endeavor. Members should first and foremost understand which subjects are currently being researched into avidly the world over. Thus they must search for libraries and other sources so as to avail all literature published up till now which will help our task in a big way. Of course they must concentrate on visiting gigantic libraries with latest broad based collections related to our research. We are not interested in libraries that predominate with fictitious novels, glossy magazines etc. We certainly have no illusions that such libraries can help us at all. Hence only nearby Colleges, Universities etc libraries can help us on a gigantic scale. Desirable literature of high standards can be found in good colleges and research institutes. There are many individuals who individually collect important literature for study purposes. Such people too could help us a great deal. Our research area is of a very high stature. Hence very little literature regarding it is available. It is futile to think that all literature required for our research will be found in one single place. Hence we all will have to visit various libraries, browse their collection deeply and sift through them so as to collect material most suited for our task at hand. Majority of the times mere title of the book cannot indicate to us whether our material is included in it. This is because the title maybe very chic and attractive but the contents within is absolutely superficial. There are so called writers who gather materials from various books and then try to sell it by giving it a chic title. Such rubbish in the name of literature is of no use to us. Hence we must not only read the title but sift through the pages of each book so as to collect matter suitable for our research activities. Where can we find material useful for the research studies in our institute? Which books and other forms of literature harbor the same? These questions will be answered by the members of our august research team. Their chief task is to enquire at various libraries etc and unearth useful literature.

If the material found in a book is short it can be hand written else if it is long only the gist need be noted down. This is the first and foremost task required to be taken up. As and when this is gathered one copy should be kept by the researcher and another copy must be sent to Haridwar i.e. Brahmavarchas Research Institute.

Before studying, finding books and making notes members should fisrt contact Haridwar else ones efforts may go in vain. Suppose one member in a particular place has taken down all required notes in an exhaustive manner and another member not knowing this collects the same material painstakingly know for sure that the latter’s precious efforts will go waste. To overcome this problem all research team members should individually first contact Haridwar before commencing any task. Haridwar will direct each one as to what is his/her appointed task. Only then should they commence work. If one topic is covered in different places it will give us information regarding that topic in totality. Thus it is very important to be in touch with our HQ at Haridwar.

In the preliminary stage 4 main topics have been taken up by us. And yet the branches and sub branches of each of these are many. In this manner although one is researching into a main subject yet it is classified into many sub topics. The more we minutely and deeply study each subject the more we will unearth extremely important information. It collection will doubtlessly be all encompassing. Thus from these 4 main branches each sub branch amongst many must be minutely researched into. Another way would involve studying many sub branches together if a particular sub branch is not giving much information. Thus some information of every sub branch can give us some insight into the main subject. Under such circumstances it becomes that much more necessary to keep in touch with our HQ. This is because keeping aside libraries of Universities those who can avail material only from small libraries will have to conduct research on many topics simultaneously. Under such circumstances a problematic situation may occur wherein many members from various regions will study one single topic and take down identical information which would be a waste of their precious time and energy. Hence we request every member to keep in touch with our HQ and submit information gathered by them over a certain time span. Thus his/her effort will not go in vain. Always make sure that you are not covering a topic already covered by someone else. And it can be done only by constantly keeping in touch with our HQ at Brahmavarchas Research Institute (Haridwar, Uttaranchal, India).

Our research members will generally be graduates, post graduates etc. They will be given research topics for studies based on their expertise in a particular topic. It is obvious that if a person has graduated in a particular subject he/she will be more comfortable with that topic for research studies. Only literature is one field which does not generally require specialization in a particular subject. This is because it encompasses general knowledge. Hence graduates in literature can take up any topic. This is of course related to non technical general subjects. Thus an M.A. in Literature can enter into a very widespread area of research studies. Despite this because they are not specialists of any particular subject they cannot delve very deep into their research studies.

Whatever has been noted down every month should be handed over to our HQ at Haridwar on the first day of the following month i.e. February notes should be handed over on March 1st etc. This is because when various notes are analyzed we know where there is room for improvement. If on the other hand a member collects a lot of material for a very long time span a problem can occur wherein if there is an error it will not be taken care of. Instead unknowingly the error will expand further and the member’s precious time will go in vain.

One more task required to be taken up by our research members is to search for deep thinkers who are naturally inclined towards research studies. No doubt, there are many well known thinkers but only a few are profound scholars in their fields. There exists a class of people who are good at dry arguments and are labeled as ‘great philosophers’. And yet when it comes to profound thinking on a particular subject they fail miserably. It is easy to flaunt ones superficial ‘intelligence’ but it is a totally different story when it comes to manifesting deep wisdom in ones area of study. Hence it is not necessary to contact superficial so called thinkers. Instead it is imperative that we humbly search for wise profound thinkers of various fields. Such thinkers are constantly reading old and new literature. They are all the time finding out where wholesome activities are being executed and what their method is. Even if such profound thinkers do not have the time to join our research directly we can always request them to advise us as and when it is possible for them to do so. Their advice will be an invaluable contribution for helping us achieve our research target.

There are many indigenous and foreign research based collections in all Universities. Some of these are not allowed for borrowing and that one has to sit there itself for reading purposes. These collections contain some very important findings and hence we must never ignore them. They will be extremely useful for our research endeavor. The responsibility of such studies will have to be taken up by those living near by such Universities.

Many people subscribe to magazines and journals which publish materials related to their field of study. Later these magazines etc collect dust or are sold off at very meager prices. Hence research members are requested to gather such magazines etc and send them to Haridwar. Many a times very minor aspects of a subject when conjoined to some very useful research becomes very influential. Thus wherever one finds literature in which ever form especially that not used by anyone should be sent to Haridwar. Even if one gets the gist of a very expansive subject it would prove very beneficial for our research endeavor.

Every research member should try and encourage more and more research experts to join our team. Of course the condition is that they must be well versed and deep thinkers of their fields of study. From the standpoint of school education it is not just enough that members are mere graduates, post graduates etc. This is because they no doubt ‘mug’ up their subjects and pass with flying colors but when it comes to deep thinking and research they fail miserably. Thus we will not benefit at all by such superficial ‘scholars’. Their efforts go in vain because of lack of subtle skills and thus it could endanger our research endeavor. Thus we must refrain from amassing ‘headaches’ and instead search for true wise and deep thinkers of various fields. We must personally come in touch with them and humbly request them to help our glorious cause. The more our research members are brilliant and wise thinkers greater is our chance to attain our goal. Hence our contemporary members must remain very alert in this direction.

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